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Sleep Disorders as a Possible Biological Marker of Depression and the Effectiveness of its Therapy by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

A.G. Manasevich, E.E. Tsukarzi, S.N. Mosolov
Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, branch of V. Serbsky National Medical Research Centre of Psychiatry and Narcology of Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

Summary. The lack of objective methods for diagnosis of depressive states, as well as deficiency of reliable indicators of the effectiveness of antidepressant therapy and the quality of remission, dictates the certain need to search for neurobiological markers. Examination about the participation of sleep disorders in affective pathology could be useful in this problem. In this article the main sleep disorders in depression were described, their polysomnographic characteristics were provided, probable general pathophysiological mechanisms of the onset of sleep disorders and depressive symptoms were analyzed. Furthermore, an attempt to classify depression based on various neurobiological characteristics, including sleep profiles was made. Additionally, a research review of the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on sleep in healthy volunteers, in people with insomnia, and in patients with depression was provided. Further study of TMS-effect on the sleep profile during depression could be a promising method in the search for biological markers. That would allow to personalize it and thereby improve its' effectiveness.

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